Lessons on sustainability are currently not consistently reflected in high school curricula, preventing young people from developing a holistic view and experience of sustainable living. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) can change that.

ESD targets both curriculum developers, teachers and students, with both teacher and students exploring not only the physical world and the power of knowledge, but also their own patterns of thinking and behavior. The emphasis shifts from information to imagination and from imagination to practical application through experiential learning.

The curriculum covers 20 sustainability topics divided into the four domains of ecology, economics, social and worldview. For each theme, “head, heart and hands goals” are formulated.



The next generation inherits a planet with some serious environmental problems and an accumulation of other crises. It is therefore important to help young people develop the knowledge, skills, values and behaviors needed to cope with these crises.

As schools lay the foundation for tomorrow’s leaders, experts and responsible citizens, integrating knowledge and skills for sustainable development is crucial for the future of our planet and, in particular, for the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and EU sustainability policies.


  • An online holistic curriculum for students, including questions and assignments.
  • An online teacher’s guide, including stories and suggestions.
  • Information and inspiration for curriculum developers.
  • The Curriculum Companion, which describes in steps how to implement this curriculum within your organization or school.

Both the ESD curriculum and the teacher’s guide are a flexible and open resource, providing teachers and curriculum developers with opportunities and suggestions for adapting learning objectives, topics and teaching methods to a specific audience, learning setting or context.


Experts from the five partner organizations from Estonia, Scotland, Spain and the Netherlands jointly developed the ESD curriculum. They also gathered input during several networking seminars with stakeholders and target groups in the various countries. Moreover, they shared best practices.


The project ran from 01-09-2020 to 30-08-2022.
The following five partners participated:

Gaia Kool
Tallinn University
in Estonia,
Contact: Raine Lindepuu

Gaia Education
in Scotland,
Contact: Pedro.Pedrosa

Gaia Netherlands
in the Netherlands,
Contact: Henk Petter

Permacultura Mediterranea
in Spain,
Contact: Mandy Merklein

This project is co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.
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